Saturday, May 23, 2020
Are you a student who has a school start time before 8:30 a.m.? Do you get tired during the school day because you did not get enough sleep? You are not alone. Students all over America are suffering from sleep deprivation. This is causing teens to do poorly in school and causes emotional and health issues. Most schools are restricted from having a later school start time because of extra-curricular activities including sports and marching band. But is this a valid sacrifice? School start times should be later for teenagers because research shows adolescents are at a risk for emotional issues, poor grade performance, and car accidents. School start times have affected teenagerÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional behavior in a major way. Teenagers are motivated to learn more when they are awake and have had a full 8 hours of sleep. There is a Psychological mind set in our brain called the circadian clock. It tells their bodies when too wake up and when they are tired. It plays a big part in our day to day life, especially when teens wake up too early and disrupt the circadian rhythm. In an article written by Kayla Wahlstrom, she talks about how she found records from a school in Minneapolis in 1997. She said she found Ã¢â¬Å"findings of significant benefits such as improved attendance and enrollment rates, less sleeping in class, and less student-reported depression.Ã¢â¬ Other schools need to look at this and decide what is more important, after school activities or teens being depressed and tired duringShow MoreRelatedSleep Deprivation Essay1250 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSleep deprivation is defined as the situation or condition of suffering from lack of sleep. Sleep deprivation is super common now days. People begin at such a young age. Most people can recall the first time they wanted to stay up super late to watch television, or hang out with their friends at a sleep over. Kids are constantly seeing older sibling and parents staying up and choosing other things over sleep. T heyÃ¢â¬â¢re taught at such a young age that sleep deprivation is an okay thing to do. We arenÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreSleeping Habits1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGetting the right amount of sleep every night is a must if you want your body to function at its highest performance throughout the day. Over half the population in America has admitted to not getting enough sleep. Bad sleep habits can really have a negative affect on teens. There are some tips that a teen can follow to help change those habits to get a better night sleep. Hopefully after reading this paper you will be more informed on how to get a good night sleep. One of the most common tendenciesRead MoreHomework: Because 7 Hours of School IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Already Enough Essay1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshigh school student in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society has the same levels of anxiety as a psychiatric patient in the 1950s? According to psychologist Robert Leahy, school these days can get a little toughÃ¢â¬â especially when most studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ first response to a heavy backpack full of homework is to worry over whether or not it can be done. In the past decade, Leahy and other psychologists have noticed a steady nationwide increase in the amount of stress caused by schoolwork among high school students (Slate Magazine)Read MoreAnalysis Of The Story Sudanese Refugee Valentino Deng1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestragedy. Many people have heard about the civil war in Sudan, but find it hard to understand the severity of the situation because itÃ¢â¬â¢s so far away and not often referenced in American culture or media. Valentino brings a personal touch to the crisis, from his adventure through the desert to his final destination in the United States. He tells stories of his friends and family tinged with personal experiences that the audience cannot help but to relate to and sympathize with. As ValentinoÃ¢â¬â¢s home villageRead MorePain is one of the most powerful human motivators. People will say anything to make it stop because1900 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesknow or b.) you fear pain and your interrogator so much that you readily give them the information that they seek. So, what techniques does the American government use to derive information from itÃ¢â¬â¢s prisoners? Some techniques that they have used are sexual humiliation, sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, solitary confinement, mock execution, medical experimentation, learned helplessness, intimidation by dogs, confinement in a box with insects, and waterboarding. Ã¢â¬Å"The UnitedRead MoreMajor Risk Factors for the Development of Anorexia Nervosa1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessix percent of people who suffer from anorexia have a genetic predisposition to the disease (Candy, 2003). People who have an immediate family member with Anorexia are 12 times more likely to develop the disorder themse lves than those with no family history of the disease. This is due to a hereditary gene which is linked to abnormalities with the neurotransmitter chemical, Serotonin (Source, 2003). This chemical is an active participant in the control of sleep, memory, learning, mood, body temperatureRead MoreThe Overall Effects of Staying Up Late on University Students10276 Words Ã |Ã 42 PagesOverall Effects of Staying Up Late On University Students Submitted by: Farhan Rashid Ahmed Ansari ID- 0910711030 SEC-2 Date of Submission- 20.12.2011 Acknowledgement The reason for choosing this particular topic was because of my parents, especially my mother who has taken care of me for all these years. My mother has always ensured that I have proper sleep. Hence, I ended up writing a research paper regarding sleep. I would also like to thank all my respondents for filling up my questionnaireRead MoreTechnology And Its Effects On Children1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"babysitterÃ¢â¬ enables the parents to devote all their time and effort into their work or engross in technology with limited amounts of distraction from the children. Although, the parents are able to have free time, excessive amounts of screen time is proven to be detrimental to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and overall well-being. The technology that is drastically making life easier is a big blessing, but at the same time is a big curse. Twelve percent of all children in America are consider to be overweight orRead More Effects of SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Start Times on Students Essay2998 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesEffects of SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Start Times on Students SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s start times have been an arising issue in the United States for many years and recently began to surface. More and more individuals everyday are realizing the effects of a schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s start time on those attending the school, teaching at the school, parents of those who attend the school as well as the surrounding community. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦education seems to be the most sleep-deprived field in AmericaÃ¢â¬ (Black, 2001). Beginning a schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s start time at 7:17Read MoreAnalysis Of The Book Disgrace Byj.m Coetzee 1993 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWhen one tries to relate the protagonists David Lurie from Disgrace, Changez from The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Offred from The HandmaidenÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, they appear to be polar opposites from each other with no similar characteristics, motives or personality types. However, there are similarities on how the authors developed their principal characters of the books through the relationships that the protagonist have with other characters, primarily their love interests. Offred, David Lurie and Changez
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Guinea Pig Ownership and Social Skill Improvement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1394 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/02/14 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Autism Essay Did you like this example? A growing number of children within the United States of America are suffering from debilitating deficiencies in communication and social interaction (Matson, 2011). Autism Spectrum Disorder, according to most recent statics, estimates that approximately 1 in 59 children living in the United States (Baio, 2018). Small animal pets may be a resourceful and natural way for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to increase their social ability. Social competence allows children to practice the skills they learn while developing and interacting amongst their peers to refine those learned skills. With ASD targeting the social realms of the child is important to look at the previous studies done with guinea pigs to determine if small animal pets are a good way to curtail the deficiencies caused by ASD. Social problems and disabilities in todays society can become the point of focus for bullies and harassment, but with the help of guinea pigs the effects of bullying can be diminished. The effects of bullying have been extensively studied and it is well known that bullying overall is harmful. For children with ASD the bullying that takes place at school, due to their disability and its effect on the child, can extend pass the classroom and cause maladjusted behavioral traits to show in the home as well (OÃ¢â¬â¢Haire et al. 2014; Kasara, 2007). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Guinea Pig Ownership and Social Skill Improvement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder" essay for you Create order When, however, a Guinea pig was introduced into the classrooms with children who suffered from ASD results showed improvement in ASD childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social skills, including their social approach behavior, functioning, and social withdraws (OÃ¢â¬â¢Haire et al. 2014). This makes sense as children with ASD would prefer animal contact to that of toys or children (Celani, 2002; OÃ¢â¬â¢Haire et al. 2013). Having the presence of a guinea pig in the classroom allowed the children both with ASD and without the ability to communicate and interact over a commonality: the class guinea pig. By interacting with a guinea pig at school improvements were seen but the pupils studied were not allowed to take it home with them. Children arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just socially interacting at school, but they are also emotionally interacting with peers as well. While the, rejection, bullying and other exclusionary stresses can affect the home life (Lytle and Todd, 2009). It would be beneficial to keep a small pet animal such that as a guinea pig in the home. Because it is not feasible to put a guinea pig in every classroom child both with ASD and without are missing out on several possible benefits. However, with over 24 million small animals as pets and approximately 80 million American homes with any type of pet it can reasonably inferred that is easier for responsible parents and guardians to obtain and keep a guinea pig than it is for a school too (Heugten, 2015). The benefits of keeping a pet at home include benefits to emotional development such as self-esteem, cognitive development through improvements in areas of language and verbal skills, as well as increase in social competence (Endenburg and Lith, 2011). Each of these crucial areas, emotional, social, and cognitive, are affected by ASD. Children with ASD could see improves in these areas. While they are all connected without improvement in emotional and cognitive skills social skills can be difficult to improve. This study also, although indirectly, shows clear connections between the human psyche and companion animals, even if those animals are service or working animals. The bonds developed between most owners and their companion animal are strong as evident by the number of pets and money spent on food, care and toys each year. Besides the known benefits of having an animal on the premises the ownership of pet, or guinea pig can allow the child to take responsibility for the companion animal while strengthen the bond between the animal and improving, through ownership responsibilities and play, and social-emotionally development (Ward et al. 2017). The responsibility factor is a major key in helping children diagnosed with ASD in improving the quality, not just expanding, of their social skills by allowing for the building of bonds and friendship with their animals. As previously mentioned, due to bullying, children with ASD can experience exclusion which is a factor in assessing the degree of depressive symptoms. By becoming more responsible for a companion animal, such as a guinea pig, ASD children showed fewer depressive symptoms and, due to bond building companionship between the child and animal, showed positive friendship benefits with their peers (Ward et al. 2017). Friendship quality, rather positive or negative, has been shown to affect to the social skills of children (Berndt 2002). Because friendship has been found to influence the social skills and social aspects of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, it is imperative that a child with ASD who has reduced social skills, due to the disease and consequences that come with it, such as bullying, can get the benefits associated with owning and becoming responsible for a guinea pig. Guinea pigs are specifically ideal for children who also have ASD. The nature of guinea pigs along with the responsibility involvements allows for a child to be able to take more control in the ownership and care taking of the animal than that of a larger species companion animal. Guinea pigs are diurnal, unlike some small animal pets which are nocturnal, they can be handled with relative ease, and are not typically aggressive (OÃ¢â¬â¢Haire et al. 2013). They also require less of a time requirement for care, compared to larger companion animals, which can allow children to better maintain them. They are generally also less expensive to own versus larger companion animals. Due to their small size, housing, food, toys, treats, and accessories are going to cost less than for an 80-pound dog or 12-pound cat. The reduced price of owning a guinea pig, or two, can be the meaningful difference in the adoption or purchase of a pet to assist with social improvement of a child with ASD. While studies have shown that the presences, ownership, and care taking responsibilities of a guinea pig may show improvement of children who suffer with ASD more study should be done to confirm the conclusions reached. Longitudinal investigates the past participants of studies like the ones cited would beneficial as one could measure the long-term social effects that companion animal and guinea pig ownership has. Research and study specifically involving guinea pig ownership and caretaking should be looked at as most studies involve show the general incline of social skills amongst ownership and caretaking of all companion animals. Studies should also be conducted and replicated with similar parameters as the ones cited but with a focus on home ownership and responsibility and not solely on ownership and responsibilities in educational settings where the child is only exposed to interactions with the animal at school. By focusing on home guinea pig ownership specifically, a stronger correlation can be made between the improvement of emotional, social, and cognitive development of a child with ASD and the use of guinea pigs as and effective way to enhance the social abilities and skills of the child. Emotional and cognitive confidence are auxiliary factors for the growth in social skills and research into how these auxiliary factors and affected by guinea pig ownership would also lead to how much of an influence they play into the social improvement aspect. By reviewing current materials and studies in the fields of animal science, medicine, and psychology, the effects of guinea ownership are a positive one and can improve social skills and abilities on children with ASD. This comes from the bond of caring for and being responsible for a small animal. The bonds developed and interactions with the guinea pig can transfer over to interactions with other human beings as demonstrated by having guinea pigs in classroom setting. Guinea pigs make for ideal companion animals alternatives for younger children who cannot handle the responsibilities of a more exotic or larger animal. By allowing them to care for guinea pigs a confidence is gained that allows the child to develop emotionally as well as socially. Emotional confidence can play a major role in the development of social skills as children with ASD face issues that most of their peers do not. This is also good for the health of the animal being raised, if done correctly, as it allows the animal to also develop a bond with its caretaker ad presumably live a happier life.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The essentials of management, by far, are not historically new. One can imagine the management that was needed to build the Egyptian pyramids or the Greek Parthenon. The requirement was to have people work efficiently together toward a successful common end. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Management in Health Care or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, with the rise of industrialization and now with the rapid speed of change and technological advancements, effective management is needed more than ever. Healthcare, which is having such a significant impact on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and also undergoing many transitions in a short period of time, is a prime example of an industry that requires the best management possible. Peter Drucker, an economist and journalist, is regarded as the founding father of the study of management by experts in the worlds of business and academia. According to Drucker (2001, pg. 10), management is based on several essential principles: 1) Management concerns first and foremost human beings, who must be made capable of joint performance, their strengths effective and weaknesses irrelevant; 2) Management is thoroughly a part of individual cultures and is variable; 3) Each organization must have a commitment to common goals and unifying objectives that are set my management; 4) Management must find ways of encouraging growth and development of the organization and its members as opportunities change; 5) Within every organization are individuals with different skills and knowledge accomplishing different types of work. This necessitates effective communications as well as each person assuming responsibility for setting individual goals, making those goals known, and working with others to accomplish them; 6) Management is measured on such factors as innovation, market share, quality and people development, not by the bottom line or output quantity; and 7) Most important, results exist only on the outside with a satisfied patient, client or customer. In the early 1960s Drucker read Abraham H. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of management, which is based on the belief that each person has specific needs. He Ã¢â¬Å"became an immediate convertÃ¢â¬ (Drucker, 1999a, p. 17). Essentially, this means that different groups of employees have to be managed differently, and that the same group of workers has to be managed differently at different times (pg. 21). However, stressed Drucker, Ã¢â¬Å"one does not Ã¢â¬ËmanageÃ¢â¬â¢ people. The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of each individual (pg. 21-22). In these days of global competition, such a leadership style is essential to point individuals in the most productive directions. One also has to prepare for continual change. In the past, management commitments for the future were based on the question, Ã¢â¬Å"What is most likely happen?Ã¢â¬ Now, it is necessary to plan for uncertainty by asking Ã¢â¬Å"What has already happened that will create the future?Ã¢â¬ (Drucker, 1995, pg. 40). All organizations, especially ones in the healthcare field, have to look at such factors as demographic trends; changes in industry, market structure, values, science and technology already in place but yet to have full impact; and trends in the economy and structure of society. They must then convert these Ã¢â¬Å"what is most likely to happenÃ¢â¬ into opportunities for the organization based on its strengths and competence. Further, it must develop the knowledge and people to be able to respond to these opportunities. Global society is in the midst of a major transformation, where knowledge is the primary resource if, and only if, it is integrated into a task. For managers, this dynamics of knowledge requires building change into the organizational structure. The organization must commit itself to continually creating something new (Drucker, 1995, pg. 79). As a result, management must emphasize continuous improvement or kaizen, exploit its knowledge to develop the next generation of applications from its successes and learn to innovate in a systematic process. This means that organizations must continually make changes. This may even lead to closing down a hospital when changes in medical knowledge, technology and practice make a hospital with less than 200 beds uneconomical and unable to provide excellent care (pg. 81). The organizations of the future must also routinely say, Ã¢â¬Å"People are our greatest asset,Ã¢â¬ and loyalty is gained through offering employees exceptional opportunities for putting their knowledge to work. Ironically, however, knowledge about the knowledge worker productivity is minimal. For example, a fair-sized U.S. hospital of 400 beds has several hundred physicians and a staff up to 1,500 paramedics divided among 60 specialties, with specialized equipment and labs. Ã¢â¬Å"But we do not yet know how to get productivity out of themÃ¢â¬ (Drucker, 1992, pg. 336) What is known, Drucker says in Management Challenge for the 21st Century (1999b, pg. 142), are the six major demands that underlie this productivity: 1) need to ask, Ã¢â¬Å"what is the task?Ã¢â¬ ; 2) individuals assume responsibility for themselves; 3) continuing innovation; 4) continuous learning and teaching; 5) quality over quantity; and 6) individuals recognized as an asset. Making knowledge workers productive necessitates changes in basic attitude of the entire organization. Knowledge-worker productivity is the largest of the 21st century management challenges. In the developed countries, it is their first survival requirement (Drucker, 1999b, pg. 157). One of the biggest changes is that workers will have to manage themselves and place themselves in the location where they can make the greatest impact. They will have to learn how to develop themselves and continuously better themselves. They will have to ask themselves: Ã¢â¬Å"What are my strengths?Ã¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Where do I belong?Ã¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"What is my contribution?Ã¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Where can I take relationship responsibility?Ã¢â¬ ; and Ã¢â¬Å"How can I plan for the second half of my life?Ã¢â¬ The lesson, concludes Drucker (1998, pg. 187) is that productivity of knowledge has both a qualitative and quantitative dimension. Managers (actually executives is a better word, he says) must manage both specialists and synthesizes of the different fields of knowledge. The healthcare industry will be significantly involved in all these changes if they are not already. In an online article Ã¢â¬Å"The Next Information Revolution,Ã¢â¬ Drucker said of healthcare: Ã¢â¬Å"In healthcare a similar conceptual shift is likely to lead from healthcare being defined as the fight against disease to being defined as the maintenance of physical and mental functioning.Ã¢â¬ The battle against illness remains an essential aspect of healthcare. However, it is rather a subsection of it. The traditional healthcare providers nor the hospitals and general practice physicians may survive this change, and definitely not in their present structure and function. In healthcare, the stress will therefore transition from the Ã¢â¬Å"TÃ¢â¬ in IT to the Ã¢â¬Å"I,Ã¢â¬ as it is transitioning in business and in the general economy. Is it possible that the information people in MIS and IT prepared for such changes? He sees no sign of this so far. The 21st century is heralding in a huge transition the healthcare focus (Drucker, 1999b) While the country spent most of the prior century managing disease, it will now spend time emphasizing life extension, or maximizing the length and quality of life. The key is having a work force of nurses and allied health professionals who are educated and skilled as a chronic care coach. It is a step that goes beyond case management since it involves most patients instead of those just with the most complicated cases and situations. Overall, it will involve a major redefinition of healthcare. How to cite Theory of Management in Health Care, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Culture and Human Resource Implications in Risk Management. Answer: Introduction: The Bowtie method is a process of risk analysis that helps to visualise the risk within just one diagram. This diagram is formed like a bow-tie, where a clear differentiation between proactive and reactive risk management. The diagram of the bowtie risk analysis model is given below (Ittner and Oyon 2014). The beginning of any Bowtie is the Hazard. A Hazard is something in, around or part of the association which can possibly bring about harm. Working with unsafe substances, driving an auto or putting away delicate information are for example risky parts of an association. The possibility of a Hazard is to discover the things that are a piece of your association and could have a negative effect if control over that viewpoint is lost. They ought to be defined as should be expected parts of the association (Lavastre, Gunasekaran and Spalanzani 2012). Whatever is left of the Bowtie is committed to how we keep that typical yet risky viewpoint from transforming into something undesirable. Through the use of the Bowtie risk analysis model, the organizational risks can be managed in the above shown way. The model helps to identify the top most risks or hazards in the area of the organizational structure and management can be identified at a glance. Rising star is an organization I am familiar with is facing many problems due to the lack of proper HRM administration. The organization can use the Bowtie risk analysis model for analyzing the risks for human resource management of the organization. The model will help the organization to understand the consequences of the improper management and the escalation factors which refers to the major threats to the human resource management. They will be able to avoid the consequences by applying proper control measures to the consequences and the escalation factors. Organizational culture and human resource implications in Risk Management The organizational culture and human resource management have a high impact on the risk regarding the operations of an organization. The selection of the employees is the main operation of the human resource management of an organization. This procedure is also dependent on the organizational culture. The management of the human resource of an organization is associated with risks. If the selection of the employees is not done properly, then the organization may face huge difficulties in the management of the business operations. Therefore, the recruitment and selection process of the organization should be done with great care. The recruitment and selection should be done with focus in the proper area of specialization (Ittner and Oyon 2014). Not only the recruitment and selection process, the job allocation is also an important activity of the human resource management process. This task needs to be also done with the high level of focus in the area of the specialization and the capabilities of the employees (Hisrich and Ramadani 2016). If the job allocation is done properly, then the rate of employee satisfaction will be increased and the risk of the organization can be reduced. Risk Analysis Techniques: There are several methods of analyzing the risks associated with the operations of the organizations. Three major strategies of the risk analysis are discussed in the section below: Brainstorming: This method is used for the extensively formative project plans and to get the way of proper management of the projects. In this process, the risk factors are identified and analyzed with the help of the critical thinking of the stakeholders. It is a basic yet viable endeavour to individuals thinks innovatively in a gathering setting without feeling restrained or being censured by others. In this method, many alternative approaches for minimizing one risk can be found. The superior one is used as per the choice of majority. However, this procedure is not so efficient for all type of organizations. As per Peixoto et al. (2016), it is an efficient one for the organizations associated with the project development work. In case of traditional business organizations, this method becomes an problematic one for the risk management. Sensitivity Analysis: One of the other simple risk analysis methods is the sensitivity analysis. In this method, the value of a single variable changed to reflect the impact over the whole process. This method is mostly applied on the variables with the high level of impacts over the organizational operations. The decision making through this method is more realistic, though perhaps more complex (Hoffmann, Kiedrowicz and Stanik 2016). The main drawback of the method is the complexity. The determination of the high valued variables in the activity of the organizational risk assessment is quite hard task. Threat risk modelling: It is a basic procedure for secure web application advancement. It permits associations to decide the right controls and to deliver powerful countermeasures inside spending plan. The means of the model are appeared in the figure underneath: This is an effective procedure for the organizational risk management as it focuses on the whole scenario and assesses all type of possible risk factors (Lavastre, Gunasekaran and Spalanzani 2012). However, the iterative process may never stop if an organization thinks to mitigate all risk factors. References: Hisrich, R.D. and Ramadani, V., 2016.Effective Entrepreneurial Management: Strategy, Planning, Risk Management, and Organization. Springer. Hoffmann, R., Kiedrowicz, M. and Stanik, J., 2016. Risk management system as the basic paradigm of the information security management system in an organization. InMATEC Web of Conferences(Vol. 76, p. 04010). EDP Sciences. Ittner, C.D. and Oyon, D., 2014. The Internal Organization of Enterprise Risk Management.Available at SSRN 2486588. Lavastre, O., Gunasekaran, A. and Spalanzani, A., 2012. Supply chain risk management in French companies.Decision Support Systems,52(4), pp.828-838. Peixoto, J., Tereso, A., Fernandes, G. and Almeida, R., 2014. Project Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study of an Electric Energy Organization.Procedia technology,16, pp.1096-1105. Peixoto, J., Tereso, A., Fernandes, G. and Almeida, R., 2016. A Project Risk Management Methodology Developed for an Electrical Portuguese Organization.International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP),7(1), pp.1-19.
Thursday, March 26, 2020
Introduction Creative industries of New Zealand (NZ) have the potential to create not only knowledge but also goods and services in several fields. These include screen production, television, music, design, fashion, publishing, textiles and digital content. The creative industries have been built on the unique aspects of NZÃ¢â¬â¢s culture.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Creative Industries of New Zealand specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These industries contribute to the economy of the country and they have become a vibrant feature in the international profile of the country. The potential of the creative industries extends to add to the productivity and contribute to the growth in other manufacturing areas as well as education. The importance of the creative industries can be understood from the fact that the sector was responsible for providing jobs to more than 121,000 people at the time of 2006 census, wh ich was 6.3% of the total employment and these industries have generated revenue of $ 10.5 billion in March 2006 (Andrews et al., 2009). The NZ government has formulated cultural policies and policies regulating the creative industries and these policies have been related to the well-being of the NZ people and the growth in the economy of the country. There have been many changes in these policies relating to the creative industries. The objective of this portfolio is to make an in-depth study of the policies relating to creative industries in the NZ and to present a critical analysis of the policy development in this area during the last 10-15 years. This portfolio also focuses on analyzing the metadiscourse of sustainable development in relation to the creative industries in Aotearoa New Zealand. The purpose of this portfolio is to present an analytical report on the policies of New Zealand relating to creative industries in the country. The portfolio is structured to have differe nt sections dealing with policies relating to creative industries, policies relating to national heritage including monuments and national archives, policy changes in New Zealand during last decades and critical analysis of the policy developments relevant to the creative industries. Context In any country, the creative industries assume substantial cultural importance. With the present trend of increasing economic globalization, the magnitude of the importance of creative industries is progressively enhancing. With the economic emphasis, moving towards the knowledge economy the existence and sustenance of creative industries have become crucial to the development of any nation as well as its economy. Creative industries have been identified to be a vital part of the economy of NZ, with the intrinsic value of the sector established beyond doubt.Advertising Looking for essay on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn Mo re In NZ, the creative industries occupy a prominent place because of their substantial influence on the economy and for increasing the growth opportunities in other industries. Since the government of NZ has made economic objectives as the backbone of the promotion of creative industries rather than the social and cultural objectives, this country differs extensively from other welfare economies in the world. The policies of the NZ government with respect to creative industries consider Ã¢â¬Å"designÃ¢â¬ as an important element in the promotion of export and resultant economic progress. This uniqueness and the approach of the government in the promotion of creative industries make this study interesting and significant. The cultural policies of NZ and their implementation are also worth studying as the country has strategized its cultural priorities and objectives and the performance is measured against the preset goals. Creative Industries in New Zealand In the year 2002, the NZ government recognized the creative industries as a Ã¢â¬Å"leading potential contributor to [the] future economic growth and global positioning of the countryÃ¢â¬ (de Bruin, 2005, p. 2). According to the NZ Heart of the Nation report, creative industries are Ã¢â¬Å"a range of commercially driven businesses whose primary resources are creativity and intellectual property and which are sustained through generating profitsÃ¢â¬ (Heart of the Nation Working Group, 2002, p.5). The definition of creative industries as acknowledged by the NZ government includes Ã¢â¬Å"advertising, software and computer services (including interactive leisure software), publishing, television and radio, film and video, architecture, design, designer fashion, music, performing arts and visual arts (arts, crafts, antiques) (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, 2002). The creative industries have been identified to be the key sectors for the economic transformation of NZ, since there is a huge p otential of these industries for the economic growth of the country both in the domestic and global context. Ã¢â¬Å"The creative sector also includes niche industries which are not only vertically integrated entities, capable of standing as an economic industry on their own, but also horizontal enablers. Horizontal enablers are apparent in industries with a basis in design,Ã¢â¬ (Beattie, 2009: P 9). Horizontal enablers are industries, which act to develop other industries through their contribution in any form. Other industries receive substantial support from the creative industries in the form of advertising, web design and new product development. The creative industries also help other industries through aiding in innovations and branding of the products (Smythe, 2005). The economic, social and cultural values of a country are enhanced with the help of the activities in the creative industries. In other words, the creative industries have the potential to enhance these values (see e.g. Bilton, 2007; Santagata, 2005). A strong creative economy represents the creativity and dynamism of the country. The dynamism is reflected in all the industries and it indicates the strength of the creativity of the industries and their innovative capabilities (Bilton, 2007).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Creative Industries of New Zealand specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The NZ government has recognized the economic contribution of the creative industries and has been using the potential of the creative industries to cultivate and shape the national identity of the country, especially at a time when there are significant changes in the global economy. The government is investing in creative industries to boost the image of the country as an innovative, intellectual and creative country (Heart of the Nation Working Group, 2000). NZ has used the creative industries extensively in both external and in ternal branding through campaigns like Ã¢â¬Å"PUREÃ¢â¬ launched by Tourism NZ and the Website Ã¢â¬Å"NZ EdgeÃ¢â¬ . Painting of the images from the movie Lord of the Rings on the body of Air New Zealand aircrafts and the architectural design of the Rugby Ball Venue in Britain are some of the instances where NZ has been using the creative industries to highlight the uniqueness of the country. Cultural policy and Well-being The concept of well-being is closely associated with the transformation of places and economies affecting the lives of the people. Most of the Western countries have now taken on priority the agenda of notions of quality of life and the related concept of well-being and its sustainability. Well-being is considered as the most desired outcome of the service delivery in mainstream activities. Similarly the concept of well-being takes the center-stage in the realms of education, healthcare, social services more specifically related to disabled and elderly citizens and it is evidenced by a number of different projects in public sector partnerships at all levels (Ager, 2002). One of the main constituents of well-being is the culture and the quality of life and well-being is mingled with an emerging Ã¢â¬Å"therapeutic ethosÃ¢â¬ (Mirza, 2005). The cultural policy-making in the country of New Zealand is influenced largely by the notion of the increased role of culture in improving the well-being of the people (New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2006). The sustenance of well-being underpins the developments in cultural social indicators. In this context, the definition of Ã¢â¬Ëcultural well-beingÃ¢â¬â¢ as adopted by the New Zealand government is worth noting. The definition goes as Ã¢â¬Å"The vitality that communities and individuals enjoy through: participation in recreation, creative and cultural activities; and the freedom to retain, interpret and express their arts, history, heritage and traditionsÃ¢â¬ (New Zealand Minist ry for Culture and Heritage, 2005, p.1).Advertising Looking for essay on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to promote the cultural well- being of the people, Section 10 of the Local Government Act, 2002 enables the local governments to take actions to promote social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of communities. Cultural well-being is considered as one of the four forms of well-being, which are interconnected with each other. The other forms are (i) economic, (ii) social, and (iii) environmental. Specific instructions have been passed on to the local authorities in New Zealand to Ã¢â¬Å"integrate and balance these four types of well-being in planning and practiceÃ¢â¬ (New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2005, p.3). The provision contained in the Local Government Act, 2002 was influenced by the necessity to consider the well-being of the Maori community. Ã¢â¬Å"More recent migrants to New Zealand from the Pacific and from Asia are also seeking public acknowledgement of important cultural values. A widespread acceptance in New Zealand has now emerge d that culture is an essential component of individual and community well-being,Ã¢â¬ (Dalziel et al, 2006). From this point of view, there is deficiency in defining the cultural well-being objectives, as there is no statutory list of such objectives. Cultural Policies of New Zealand Creative New Zealand is a crown entity, which is established under the Arts Council of New Zealand Toi Aotearoa Act, 1994. The entity is made responsible for the development of arts in the country of NZ (Creative NZ). The function of the entity is to provide support to the professional artists and organizations promoting arts. The entity extends the required support by organizing funding programmes. Creative NZ also provides special initiatives like audience and market development and assisting to form partnerships and in conducting research. The Arts Council governs the entity and other agencies including the Pacific Arts Committee that takes the funding decisions. The government through Vote Arts, c ulture and Heritage and the NZ Lottery Grants Board provides the major funding for Creative NZ. There are four strategic priorities, which guide the work of Creative NZ. The strategic plan Te Mahere Rautaki 2007-2010 outlines these priorities, which are as follows: People of NZ are engaged in different arts Superior quality NZ arts are promoted and developed People of NZ are to have access to experiences in superior quality arts Arts of NZ arts to gain international recognition and success The above priorities prescribe the focus for Creative NZ for the next three years of the planning period. The priorities outline the framework for planning and decision-making by Creative NZ in the matters relating to arts and culture. The following table explains the objectives for each priority. Priority Objectives New Zealanders are engaged in the arts Strong Maori Arts: Creative New Zealand will invest in Maori communities strengthening and building cultural identity through the arts St rong Pacific arts: Creative New Zealand will invest in New Zealand Pacific communities strengthening and building cultural identity through the arts Community Arts Participation: Creative New Zealand will support diverse, local and ethnic communities participating in and developing their art High-quality New Zealand art is developed Innovative quality artists: Creative New Zealand will invest in dynamic New Zealand artists, practitioners and organizations, acknowledged for innovation and quality Innovative Work: Creative New Zealand will invest in quality art that commands attention nationally and internationally Develop Potential: Creative New Zealand will invest in and support quality New Zealand artists, practitioners to reach their potential New Zealanders have access to high-quality arts experiences Delivery of the arts: Creative New Zealand will invest in opportunities for New Zealanders to access quality arts experiences on a regular basis Audience Development: Creative N ew Zealand will invest in opportunities for New Zealanders to experience high-quality New Zealand work that is innovative challenging and culturally diverse Developing Potential: Creative New Zealand will invest in providers of quality arts experiences to broaden, deepen and diversify, their audiences New Zealand arts gain international success New Zealanders distinctive voices heard overseas: Creative New Zealand will invest in the distinct expressions of New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse areas and culture at key international events and markets Market development: Creative New Zealand will invest in an arts sector that generates new Zealand artists making world class work that delivers to targeted markets Developing Potential: Creative New Zealand will invest in New Zealand artists, practitioners and organizations to build their capacity, profile, relationships and work in order to have enduring overseas success. Source: Creative New Zealand (2007) The strategic plan of Te Mahere Rautaki 2007-2010 represents a marked change in the focus from the previous cultural policies of the NZ government. The plan can be considered a significant improvement as it provides the framework for measuring the progress against preset goals and priorities in the areas of arts and culture and their promotion. Ã¢â¬Å"The Strategic Plan 2007-2010, outlined in Part One, sets out the specific priorities and objectives Creative New Zealand is seeking to achieve or contribute to over the three-year period. Creative New Zealand has also developed a set of long-term outcomes that are expected to endure beyond the period of the plan. For each long-term outcome, a set of contributory outcomes have been identifiedÃ¢â¬ (Wahangr Aua Statement of Intent 2007-2010). According to the Statement of Intent for Tauaki Whakamaunga atu 2008-2011, the entity of Creative NZ has Ã¢â¬Å"implemented an improved performance measurement framework,Ã¢â¬ (Creative New Zealand, 2008: P 20). This framework is likely to enable Creative NZ to demonstrate the ways in which its activities contribute to the strategic priorities and objectives against each priority and the relevant outcomes. The framework has emphasized developing various measures Ã¢â¬Å"across the areas of quality, quantity, responsiveness and efficiencyÃ¢â¬ (P 20). In addition to developing these measures, Creative NZ is working towards development of key indicators, which will Ã¢â¬Å"provide further information on trends internally or externally that may influence investment decisions and or the development of specific activities, programmes or strategiesÃ¢â¬ (P 20). Policies relating to Creative Industries in New Zealand The creative industry strategy of NZ is relatively young and the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Innovative Framework (GIF) formulated it. This entity was set up in the year 2001, which was meant to take care of the economic recession that hit the country few years prior to 2001. During that period, the Mini stry of Economic Development identified three strategic areas, which needed the support from the government for their development Ã¢â¬â biotech, InfoTech and creative industries. The government chose to work on the subareas of creative industries such as Ã¢â¬Å"screen production, games, publishing, music, fashion, textiles, furniture, digital media and design.Ã¢â¬ The government considered design as the Ã¢â¬Å"main enabler across the wider business communityÃ¢â¬ (New Zealand Trade and Enterprise 2005: 1). In NZ, the cultural and social dimensions of creative industries are not considered as part of the policies and strategies of the government. This is unique to NZ and it is a deviation from other welfare state countries. Therefore, the creative industries are promoted solely by innovation policies and economic policies. In the year 2003, the NZ government undertook new policy measures on design and formulated a design policy. The government created an entity New Zealand Tr ade and Enterprise (NZTE), with the overall objective of creating a link between the designers and the innovation process in the business. The government released a grant of Euro 6 million for integrating design in to the innovative process during the planning period from 2003 to 2007. The approach of NZ to creative industries takes an exclusive economic approach. The governmental agencies working with the creative industries such as the NZTE and the Growth and Innovation Framework are driven purely by economic objectives. The Ministry of Culture and Heritage has played relatively small role in the promotion of creative industries. In NZ, the national economic development agency, New Zealand Trade and Enterprise integrate the activities of two other organizations Industry New Zealand and Trade New Zealand. The country employs exclusive economic arguments for promoting creative industries. The government views the creative industries from a more general perspective of innovation. In this context, the vision of NZTE states Ã¢â¬Å"New Zealand will activate international excellence in creativity, design and innovations to radically re-position itself in global markets and value-chainsÃ¢â¬ (New Zealand Trade and Enterprise 2005: 2). The government has emphasized that the industry should be a part of the policy formulating process. This is evidenced by the statement that Ã¢â¬Å"the intention of the framework is for the private sector to shape the direction of the development of specific strategiesÃ¢â¬ (Ministry of Economic Development, 2003: 21). In NZ, the economic potential of the creative industries has been taken to the area of export promotion. The program Ã¢â¬Å"Better by DesignÃ¢â¬ aims at improving the export performance of the companies in NZ through integrating design in the innovative processes in every type of business. According to NZTE, who initiates the program, the goal of the program is to achieve higher export revenue by making the product s and services of New Zealand differentiate themselves by incorporating world-class design into them. The government through the Better by Design program encourages the upcoming exporters by offering them (i) free of cost advice on the implementation of design, (ii) funding to the extent of 50% of the cost of the design project subject to a maximum of $ 50,000 with the objective of building design capacity and (iii) education internships aimed at helping the businesses to get access to better skills available to work with then design capabilities of the company. New Zealand is the only country, which has accommodated the use of design in its export promotion activities. In NZ, the creative industries and culture are not financed by the tax expenditure, as in the case of UK or United States. However, the state acts as the facilitator in these two areas. The role of the state as the facilitator is explicit from the statement of the new plan for NZTE, which goes Ã¢â¬Å"NZTE is a facili tator and a catalyst. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re there to help make things happen. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t do the deals ourselves. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re done by smart business people who are passionate about taking their ideas to international marketsÃ¢â¬ (New Zealand Trade and Enterprise 2003: 3). This statement shows that the policies supporting creative industries are solely aimed at correcting market failures instead of a whole framework to cover the entire activities of the creative industries. Ã¢â¬Å"It also shows that the NZ state has no intention that the promotion of creative industries should serve democratic, social or cultural goalsÃ¢â¬ (Birch, 2008:96). Policies relating to National Heritage including Monuments and National Archives The government of NZ in accordance with its commitment, created a new Ministry for Culture and Heritage in the year 2000. The government provided NZ $ 80 million for the promotion of arts, culture and heritage sector with a programme for increasing the funds in th e next three years. The government considers the maintenance of the national archives and monuments as a significant part of its overall duties and ensures that the heritage values are considered, while various policy stances are taken. The government has adopted a best practice approach in order to Ã¢â¬Å"respect and acknowledge the importance of the historic heritage in its care; foster an appreciation of and pride in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage; ensure that its historic heritage is cared for and, where appropriate, used for the benefit of all New Zealanders; ensure consistency of practice between government departments; set an example to other owners of historic heritage, including local government, public institutions and the private sector; contribute to the conservation of a full range of places of historic heritage value; ensure that places of significance to MÃ ori in its care are appropriately managed and conserved in a manner that respects mÃ tauranga MÃ ori and is consistent with the tikanga and kawa of the tangata whenua; and contribute to cultural tourism and economic developmentÃ¢â¬ (Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2010). The government has recognized that there are various constraints in managing the historic heritage. For example, there are the operational needs of specific departments like for arranging for the security of buildings under the custody of Department of Culture and Heritage and for arranging for the facilities to carry out research. Similarly, the societal or cultural practices, which may have to changed to other places physically like the provision of facilities for immigrant groups may also pose significant problems in managing the heritage values. In addition, meeting the requirements of various statutes like the Building Act, 1991 needs striking a proper balance between different policy stances of the government. There are only limited resources with the government to meet the competing demands of this sector. Under its policies to protect national heritage including monuments and national archives, the government has passed various legislations including (i) Historic Places Act, 1993, (ii) Building Act, 1991, (iii) Reserves Act, 1977, (iv) Conservation Act, 1987 and (v) Resource Management, Act, 1991. The government has created the New Zealand Historic Places Trust (NZHPT), which is the leading national historic agency in NZ. The trust functions as the guardian of Aotearoa New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s national heritage. An Act of Parliament established the trust in the year 1954 and it became an autonomous Crown Entity under the Crown Entities Act, 2004. The trust has the full support from the government and its functions are funded through Vote Arts, Culture and Heritage through the Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Historic Places Act, 1993 regulates the works, powers and functions of the NZHPT. The government is reviewing the Historic Places Act and various other pieces of legislations to br ing changes in the operation of the NZHPT and to revise the archaeological provisions in the Historical Places Act. The proposed changes include Ã¢â¬Å"combining the two main types ofÃ archaeological authority to create one authority with a single administrative process reducing the statutory processing times for authorities from three months to 20 days (in most cases) ensuring the NZHPTÃ¢â¬â¢s Maori Heritage Council is involved in considering all applications that affect sites of Maori interest, and creating a new Ã¢â¬ËsimplifiedÃ¢â¬â¢ process for authorities of a more minor nature whereby the applicant is not required to provide an archaeological assessment with their applicationÃ¢â¬ (New Zealand Historic Places Trust, 2010). The objective of these proposed changes is to bring better alignment between the Historic Places Act and the Resources Management Act. There are various other proposals concerning the revamping the NZHPT under consideration of the government to e nsure better protection to the historical places and monuments. Table: Partial Listing of Heritage Protection Mechanism in New Zealand Source: Allen (1998:10) Thus, the framework for the protection of heritage sites and monuments in NZ is designed under various pieces of legislations like Conservation Act, Resource Management Act and the Historic Places Act. Various parliamentary Acts relating to the operation of territorial authorities also govern the management of historical places. The above table exhibits the major mechanisms available and the primary agencies responsible for ensuring the working of the mechanisms. Even though there are various legislations govern the management of historical sites, a clear definition of the linkages among the major Acts has not been established which is a deficiency in the management of the historical places. However, the practices and policies of the agencies and institutions involved promote the integration in the activities. Ã¢â¬Å"Function s at the two levels of government, central and local, are complemented by semi-governmental organisations such as the New Zealand Historic Places Trust and by non-governmental organisations such as Maori tribal authorities. It is common in colonial countries for the government to carry out functions that might elsewhere be the province of private organisations. New Zealand has retained such structures longer than many countries and hence it has no private and fully independent national trust organisation but rather the NZ Historic Places Trust, which uncomfortably straddles the divide between being a government agency and a national trust,Ã¢â¬ (Allen, 1998:9). The structure of organization and divide in carrying out the functions is another weakness observed in the management of historical places and national archives in NZ. The government applied a moratorium on the further acquisition of properties by NZHPT in the year 1982. The Trust Board undertook a review of the properties in its possession in the year 1994 with the objective of rationalizing the Trust property portfolio. Based on this review, the Trust had to take decisions on the extent to which any Trust property would assist the Trust to meet its statutory obligations and such decisions were subjected to the available finances with the Trust. However, the government has not provided any additional funds to the Trust in respect of this aspect of the work of the Trust. The Trust had to rely on a lottery grant for this purpose. The government announced a further 50% cut on the grants to the Trust, which severely constrained the property management work of the Trust. It is to be noted that NZÃ¢â¬â¢s system of local government and planning has more similarities with the systems followed in England. These similarities existed until such period the reforms were carried out in this area between 1988 and 1994 (Bush, 1995:1-81). The planning for the protection of historical places and monuments has been t aken in new directions with the new concepts introduced in the Resource Management Act, 1991 and the new organizational structure planned for the territorial local authorities by the Local Government Act, 1992. However, there has not been a complete transformation of the systems in NZ in respect of the management of heritage sites and national archives. The agencies in the county have been endowed with the problems of resourcing and have been struggling to meet the ends. In addition, there are the problems of multiplicity of agencies, problems with assessment and nomination of places for scheduling and questions of preservation versus salvage excavation. Policy Changes in New Zealand during the last Decades The programme of comprehensive economic reforms in NZ was undertaken between the years 1984 and 1994. The reforms were undertaken in view of the recognition that the country did not achieve the same rate of economic growth as that of other OECD countries, since the country implem ented economic policies that relied much on the regulatory controls. Therefore, the successive governments have to undertake reforms in Ã¢â¬Å"monetary policy, fiscal policy, international trade policy, domestic industry policy, employment law policy, public sector policy and social security policy within a reasonably consistent framework intended to promote macroeconomic stability and microeconomic competitionÃ¢â¬ (Dalziel et al, 2008:104). Nevertheless, the decade of reforms witnessed considerable social dislocation and distress. Against the loss of social well-being the government introduced reforms aimed at promoting environmental well-being with the formation of the Ministry for the Environment and the passing of the Environment Act, 1986 (Young, 2007). In the year 1991, the government passed the important legislation of the Resource Management Act, which can be considered significant for its recognition of the conjoint objectives for government policy. This piece of legisla tion recognized the need for social, economic, cultural and environmental well-being. The inclusion of Ã¢â¬Å"cultural well-beingÃ¢â¬ though unusual in international legislation can be understood with the recent history of New Zealand, which exhibits the pressure on the government to recognize the cultural treasures of Maori legally. When the Labour-led government headed by Helen Clark took charge, the government announced the change of direction in the policies of the government (Dalziel et al., 2006). The government acknowledged that the economic reforms undertaken during 1980s and 1990s were insufficient and there was the need for further economic transformation. The government also understood the need to sustain the national identity and culture and the two themes of economic transformation and promotion of national culture became the central focus of ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s government. Critical Analysis of Policy Developments relevant to the Creative Industries This portfolio argues that although NZ has made significant changes to its understanding of economic policy and cultural well-being over the last 15 years, there has been no interaction between the two policy frameworks. Combining economic policies with the cultural well-being may not produce the desired results as the use of cultural capital for economic well-being may damage cultural well-being. It is essential that the cultural capital should be kept connected with the cultural context for promoting the cultural well-being of the country. This argument is supported by the following explanation on the tension between the policies of economic transformation and cultural well-being. In order to analyze the incongruity between the policies, first there is the need to have an overview on the work of NZ Trade and Enterprise that strives to strengthen the creative industries as a mechanism for taking advantage of the culture of NZ to create economic wealth. This section also presents the examples of creation of intellectual property or a market brand out of cultural capital for an effective economic transformation and its real impact. The economic reform of NZ can be considered to have ended with the passing of the Fiscal Responsibility Act in the year 1994. The governments after this period focused only on consolidating the economic reforms undertaken earlier but not extending any of them. The incoming government in 1999 concentrated on three projects Ã¢â¬â An innovation Framework for New Zealand, Catching the Knowledge Wave and Facilitating Economic Transformation Ã¢â¬â to achieve its objective of economic transformation. The outcome of these three projects was Ã¢â¬Å"Growing an Innovative New ZealandÃ¢â¬ which led to the formation of Ã¢â¬Å"Growth and Innovation Framework (GIF). Based on this framework, the government decided to focus on creative industries among the three sectors selected by it. The government initiated two task forces Ã¢â¬â one focusing on the screen p roduction industry and the second focusing on design as the basis for promoting exports. It was the conclusion of the taskforce on screen production that creativity alone cannot lead the industry to grow. This was conveyed through a report produced in the year 2003. The government formed New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (NZTE) in 2003, by merging the agencies responsible for trade promotion and industry policy with the objective of implementing national development policies. NZTE positioned NZ as creative, innovative and technologically advanced under its Ã¢â¬Å"New Zealand New ThinkingÃ¢â¬ objective, which aimed to drive economic transformation of the country based on the aspects of the history, heritage and culture. Based on these considerations and with the objective and focus of NZTE it emerges that the culture of NZ has become only a means to meet an end. Culture has not been regarded as an objective having equal priority as the economic advancement. Ã¢â¬Å"The end in this c ontext is economic well-being, with culture subsumed as a form of intellectual property that can be used to promote New Zealand exports, tourism, services and investment to global audiences,Ã¢â¬ (Dalziel et al., 2008: 111). It may be recalled that cultural well-being is one among the four well-beings projected by Section 10 the Local Government Act, 2002, which has not been given due consideration by the NZTE. Based on the approach of NZTE and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy objectives, the future policy development is most likely to be guided by the following three major elements. Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural well-being requires access to resources, to fund support infrastructure for recreation, creative and cultural activities, to preserve history and heritage, to protect cultural freedom and to provide income opportunities to creative artists at the forefront of cultural development Recreation, creative and cultural activities make significant contributions to economic well-being by offeri ng employment and income opportunities in industries such as screen production, fashion and cultural tourism Economic transformation can be enhanced by drawing on a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural assets to improve the design and marketing of its goods and services and to create a strong country brand for international trade and investment,Ã¢â¬ (Dalziel et al., 2008:115). These points present a strong association and positive synergy between cultural well-being and economic transformation of NZ (Eames 2006). However, this portfolio argues that such association produces some tension, as there is likely to be significant overlap between economy and culture in areas like knowledge and cultural capital. Ã¢â¬Å"It suggests considerable overlap between economy and culture in areas such as knowledge, social capital, cultural capital, customary rights, property rights, institutions and values. These areas of overlap are influenced by, and in turn influence, the economic and the cultural spher esÃ¢â¬ (Dalziel, 2008:115).This paper argues that while such overlaps may act to reinforce each other they bound to create tensions too. One of the examples that can be cited in this respect is the use of traditional Maori design Ã¢â¬Å"koruÃ¢â¬ by Air New Zealand. The design Ã¢â¬Å"koruÃ¢â¬ symbolizes the Maori concept of how the life can change and can remain the same. Shand (2002:48) identifies koru as the central design feature of many of the artistic practices of Maori. To add cultural image to its brand, Air New Zealand wanted to add the koru design to its carpets in the airport lounges. The Maoris objected to this idea saying that it is offensive to walk on their sacred symbol of life. The carpets were finally removed by the airline (Solomon, 2000: par 58; Shand 2002: P 51-51). The symbol became the cultural capital of the country. Air NZ recognized the symbol as an economic advantage to increase its brand image. The cultural capital was protected in its original con text, as customary right by the Maori people. When such cultural capital is considered as an economic opportunity in the Western market and legal system, the use of rights is treated in two different ways. Ã¢â¬Å"First, the traditional use rights typically have no standing in the Western legal system, so that to those outside the culture, the cultural capital is effectively treated as a common resource; that is, a resource from which no one can be excluded. While there may be cultural sanctions against the misuse of a cultural treasure, and while there may be social implications from causing cultural offence, there is little legal protection. Second, an outsider may seek to use the Western legal system to create a private ownership right using intellectual property law. As intellectual property, the original knowledge may become separated from its cultural context. It is possible for the original community to lose control over its own cultural capital; and people may become alienate d from their own cultural artefacts,Ã¢â¬ (Dalziel et al., 2008: 116-117). So long as the cultural capital remains in the form of a common resource, there is the risk of privatizing the resource. This is true because the ability to make use of knowledge with profit motive provides an incentive to privatise the cultural capital. Another instance that substantiates the argument for showing the intersection between cultural well-being and economic policy can be seen from the points under the consideration of Waitangi Tribunal, which was formed to make recommendations on claims brought by the Maori people. The point of contention by the Maoris include claims to protect knowledge concerning Maori arts, to protect against the exploitation and misappropriation of traditional artefacts, and carvings, to protect Maori intellectual and cultural property rights (as these were affected by the intellectual property legislation of NZ) and to protect the environment and natural resources. These points of contention were at the heart of the overlapping between cultural well-being and economic policy of NZ. There is another example where there is a clash between economic objectives and cultural imperatives. NZ has accumulated substantial cultural capital in their national rugby team Ã¢â¬Å"All BlacksÃ¢â¬ . Even though this team was beaten in the quarterfinal match in the Rugby World Cup, 2007 the team could manage to create substantial commercial opportunities including the sponsorship from Adidas. On the review by the New Zealand Rugby Football Union, it was pointed out that the All Blacks brand continued to be one of the successful brands and Adidas insisted that the team should continue their extraordinary winning record and ranking in the world rugby. The review also pointed out that Adidas viewed this as a successful business relationship (Heron and Tricker, 2008: 38). However, the NZ Rugby Football Union is aware that the commercializing the All Blacks brand is likel y to disturb its cultural affiliation. The union ensures that the team maintains its cultural roots intact. This might affect using the brand for economic gains in the future. These examples clearly point out that use of cultural capital for achieving economic benefits is likely to impact the objective of cultural well-being if the cultural capital is not allowed to keep connection to its cultural context. Critical Analysis of the Metadiscourse of Sustainable Development in relation to the Creative industries in Aotearoa New Zealand Ã¢â¬Å"The complexity of discourse analysis presents a challenge to the researcher in respect of the limitations of the research. It is essential that the researcher have to take into account, the limitations of their own possibilities amidst the presence of a number of interconnections of every piece of the available text or discourse with lot of othersÃ¢â¬ (Roggendorf, 2008). According to Wodak (1996) Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] every discourse is related to m any others and can only be understood on the basis of others. The limitations of the research area therefore depend on a subjective decision by the researcher, and on the formulation of the questions guiding the research.Ã¢â¬ (p. 14) This section outlines the premises that guided the concept of this portfolio and explains the data resources and the method followed for further analysis. As it may be observed, this portfolio used textually oriented discourse analysis. It dealt with publicly available materials drawn from the electronic resources and government Websites apart from professional journals. The necessary information was retrieved from the recent experiences of New Zealand under its Growth and Innovation Framework, Local Government Act introduced in the year 2002 for examining the link between the economic policies and cultural well-being in the country. The portfolio highlighted the manner by which economic transformation objective of the government has aimed at buildin g up the part expected to be played by the creative industries in contributing to increase the economic advantage of the country with the changed policy objectives. The portfolio addressed changes in the policy stances of the government in making the cultural well-being a statutory objective of the local government and the way it has been made the responsibility of the local governments. The portfolio based on few examples argued and highlighted the point that the necessity to use the cultural capital for sustained economic development may not lead to the desired results in increasing the cultural well-being of the country. It is essential that the cultural capital must maintain its association with its cultural context for ensuring cultural well-being of the people of NZ. The portfolio also drew from the policies relating to historical places and from the works, functions and policies of the NZHPT. In the process of analyzing the policy framework relating to the protection of natio nal monuments and archives including historical places, the portfolio highlighted the weak alignment among different legislations governing the protection of historical places and the problems and challenges faced by the agencies in maintaining sustained protection of the historical places. This portfolio argues that since there is interdependence of the economic, environmental, social and cultural well-being, there is the necessity to formulate future policies that integrate the four well-beings together. The portfolio presents the point that such integration becomes essential in view of the fact that the policymakers use the cultural capital of the country to promote economic transformation. This point is important for the future policy formulation to ensure sustained development of creative industries and to achieve the desired economic transformation since the current infrastructure for policy advice is not conducive for the integration of the well-beings, which are separate. It is also important that the government have a thorough relook into the legislations governing the protection of the historical places, national monuments and national archives to attempt for possible integration among the statutes and to regulate the funding and functioning of the various agencies and institutions made responsible for looking after the important function of protecting the historical places. In this area also, the present infrastructure for policy framework does not provide for a concerted effort by the associated agencies and they all struggle in the absence of proper coordination. After all, the government cannot neglect the protection of its national heritage and monuments. References Ager, A, 2002. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Quality of LifeÃ¢â¬â¢ Assessment in Critical ContextÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 369-376. Allen, Harry (1998) Protecting Historic Places in New Zealand Retrieved from http://www.nzarchaeology.o rg/elecpublications/HARRY2.pdf Andrews Grant, Yeabsley John and Higgs Peter L (2009) The creative sector in New Zealand: mapping and economic role: report to New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. (Unpublished) Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/31133/ Bilton, C. (2007). Management and creativity: From creative industries to creative management. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Birch Sofie (2008) The Political Promotion of the Experience Economy and Creative Industries ISBN 8770710023, 9788770710022 Bush, G., 1995. Local Government and Politics in New Zealand. Auckland: Auckland University Comparison of Cultural Policy Models Umbrella Policy Framework: Comparison of Cultural Policy Models in Australia and Internationally Retrieved from http://www.dca.wa.gov.au/__data/assets/word_doc/0017/21716/Comparative_Analysis_of_Cultural_Policy.doc. Creative New Zealand (2007) Strategic Plan and Statement of Intent Retrieved from http://www.creativenz.g ovt.nz/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=xlxzvwzBXcg%3Dtabid=4771language=en-NZ Creative New Zealand (2008) Statement of Intent Retrieved from http://www.creativenz.govt.nz/Portals/0/publications/Statement%20of%20Intent%202008-2011-%20Website%202008-07-03.pdf Dalziel Paul, Matunga Hirini, Saunders Caroline., (2006) Cultural Well-being and Local Government: Lessons from New Zealand Australian Journal of Regional Studies 12 (3) pp 267- 280 Dalziel Paul, Matunga Hirini, Saunders Caroline., (2008) Economic Policy and Cultural Well-being: The New Zealand Experience Proceedings of 32nd ANZRSAI Conference Nov-Dec 2008 pp 103-123 De Bruin, A. (2005). Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: The New Zealand experience (Working Paper 05.04). Auckland, New Zealand: Massey University, Department of Commerce. Eames, P. (2006b) Cultural Well-Being and Cultural Capital. PSE Consultancy: Waikanae Heart of the Nation Working Group. (2000). The heart of the nation: A cultural strategy for Aotearoa New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.mcdermottmiller.co.nz/projects/hotnation/hotn_summary.pdf Heron and D. Tricker (2008) Independent Review of the 2007 Rugby World Cup Campaign. Wellington: New Zealand Rugby Union. Retrieved from http://files.allblacks.com/comms/mb/Independent_Review_2007_Rugby_World_Cup_campaign.pdf Ministry for Culture and Heritage (2010) Policy for Government departmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ management of historic heritage 2004 (August 2004) Retrieved from http://www.mch.govt.nz/research-publications/publications/ministry-reports/policy-government-departments-management-histori Ministry of Economic Development (2003) Response to GIF Taskforce: Overview Paper Office of the Ministry of Economic Development Mirza, M., 2005. The therapeutic state. Addressing the emotional needs of the citizen through the arts. International Journal of Cultural Policy 11(3): 261-273. New Zealand Historic Places Trust, (2010) Review of the Historic Places Act 1993 Retrieved from http://www.historic .org.nz/en/AboutUs/HPAReview.aspx New Zealand Institute ofÃ Economic Research, (2002). The creative industries in New Zealand: Economic contribution.Ã Retrieved from http://www.nzte.govt.nz/section/13608/10947.aspx New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage (2005) Cultural Well-Being and Local Government. Report 1: Definitions and Contexts of Cultural Well-Being. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved from http://www.mch.govt.nz/cwb/resources.html#litreview New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage (2006) Cultural well-being and local government. Report 1: Definitions and contexts of cultural well-being, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved from http://www.mch.govt.nz/cwb/pdfs/report1.pdf New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (2003) Strategic Plan New Zealand Trade and Enterprise July 2003 Success by Design New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (2005) Creative Sector Engagement Strategy New Zealand Trade and Enterprise Roggendorf (2008) How New Zealand Universities Present Themselves to the Public: An Analysis of Communication Strategies Retrieved from http://repositoryaut.lconz.ac.nz/bitstream/10292/472/4/RoggendorfN.pdf Santagata, W. (2005). Creativity, fashion and market behaviour. In D. Power A. J. Scott (Eds.), Cultural industries and the production of culture, (pp. 75-90). New York: Routledge. Shand, P. (2002) Scenes from the Colonial Catwalk: Cultural Appropriation, Intellectual Property Rights and Fashion. Cultural Analysis, 3, pp. 47-88. Smythe, M. (2005). The creative continuum chapter seven: Going global.Ã Retrieved from www.betterbydesign.co.nz Solomon, M. (2000) Strengthening Traditional Knowledge Systems and Customary Law. Paper prepared for the UNCTAD Expert Meeting on Systems and National Experiences for Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices, Geneva, 30 October Ã¢â¬â 1 November. Wahangr Aua Statement of Intent 2007-2010 Part Two Page 20 Retrieved from www.dca.wa.gov.au/__Ã¢â¬ ¦ /Comparative_Analysis_of_Cultural_Policy.doc Wodak, R. (1996). Disorders of discourse. London/New York: Longman. Young, D. (2007) Keeper of the Long View: Sustainability and the PCE. Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment: Wellington This essay on Creative Industries of New Zealand was written and submitted by user Leighton Hill to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
The Inverted Pyramid The Inverted Pyramid The Inverted Pyramid By Michael Heres a tip from the newsroom: the inverted pyramid style of writing. It will help you to get your message across faster. It was developed by journalists for reasons that are completely irrelevant today or are they? The inverted pyramid principle says you should put your most important point at the top of the article, followed by your next most important point, and so on, in diminishing order of importance. Newspapers still use this principle today, but where did it come from? Many historians say that the inverted pyramid was invented by 19th century wartime reporters, who sent their stories by telegraph. They wanted the most crucial information to get through first, just in case the transmission was interrupted. But, you say, we dont send many telegrams today. Ah, but more than ever, we do send messages that can easily be interrupted! Distraction, impatience, confusion, even boredom; all these can keep your reader from finishing those precious words that youve written. Busy people expect writers to get to the meat quickly, or theyll find something else to read. The next time you write something, decide what your most important point is. If they dont hear anything else you say, what do you want them to hear? Then, say that first. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Has vs. Had"Confused With" and "Confused About"The Difference Between "Phonics" and "Phonetics"
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
FRS and ASPE Interpretation - Term Paper Example 6 Difference and similarities of financial statements Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..7 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦8 Expectations for Canada and around the world Introduction Statistics Canada is reporting the Canadian financial system recorded its strongest performance in life span of eight months in November. It showed a growing 0.4% on a month over month basis. This gain has exceeded its market expectations since it is the result of a strong performance by the servi ce sector as we as gas and oil grilling. In a research done it shows that the increase in November yield divines well for a final fourth quarter gross domestic product (GDP) annualized expansion which was 2.3% that would match with the bank of Canada forecast. In this research it shows some decline in other sectors such as; construct ion and manufacturing. The Canadian dollar later gained its value after the statistics release while outputs on Canadian bond rose slightly. It is good number as well as it is going forward to DecemberÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product (GDP) which exited in 2010. Many economists believed that this renaissance in the service area may be short-term while customer demands appeared to be more stringent mortgage and cooling insurance rules which may reduce the housing market and measured growth in the construction and service area yield through 2011 (Donald E. K.,2002). A Convergence of Expectations Full convergence is estimated by 2011 but there are a number of serious activities that require to be completed prior to 2011 either to satisfy regulatory needs and financial reporting or to make sure that when first month of 2011 arrives, everything will be in a position to en sure a smooth transition. The main goal of this is to assist financial account preparers in determining what conversion activities are crucial now and which activities can wait until later. Through the implantations and careful planning of good thought out implantation plan, change to IFRS can be cost effective and smooth exercise. This will help Canadian publicly liable financial accounts preparers in scoping out the important activities of the change from Canadian GAAP to IFRS. Convergence of accounting standards toward a common set of top quality account ting principles is seen in the public best interest and later will provide a more common language for financial reporting g. By improving GAAP, it will help to achieve convergence. The fast conversion and increase o f complex standard might bring in challenges for some stakeholders such as financial account preparer community. Enough time to react to the change, new standard and intensive efforts to tell all stakeholders of the conversions; will require to be provided with global implementations (Donald E. K., 2002). IFRS This is an international financial reporti